New Ways of Working

Explore and keep track of key legal and compliance considerations for multinational employers as new ways of working become increasingly embedded as the pandemic begins to recede. Learn more about the response taken in specific countries or build your own report to compare approaches taken around the world.

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02. Outline the key data protection risks associated with remote working in your jurisdiction.

02. Outline the key data protection risks associated with remote working in your jurisdiction.

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France

  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose

Employers must ensure the protection of their company’s data but also of employees’ data.

According to article L. 1222-10 of the French labour code, the employer must inform the teleworking employee of the company's rules regarding data protection and any restrictions on the use of computer equipment or tools. Once informed, the employee must respect these rules.

The collective national agreement of 26 November 2020, provides more details in article 3.1.4. It is the employer's responsibility to take necessary measures to protect the personal data of a teleworking employee and the data of anyone else the employee processes during their activity, in compliance with the GDPR of 27 April 2016 and the rulings of the National Commission for Technology and Civil Liberties (the CNIL).

The CNIL said in its 12 November 2020 Q&A on teleworking that employers are responsible for the security of their company's personal data, including when they are stored on terminals over which they do not have physical or legal control (eg, employee's personal computer) but whose use they have authorised to access the company's IT resources.

The National Agreement of 26 November 2020 recommends three practices:

  • the establishment of minimum instructions to be respected in teleworking, and the communication of this document to all employees;
  • providing employees with a list of communication and collaborative work tools appropriate for teleworking, which guarantee the confidentiality of discussions and shared data; and
  • the possibility of setting up protocols that guarantee confidentiality and authentication of the recipient server for all communications.
Last updated on 21/09/2021

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Italy

  • at Toffoletto De Luca Tamajo

Data security requirements applicable to all employees working at the company premises continue to apply to employees working remotely. In addition, the National Protocol on Smart Working specifies that the employer should promote the adoption of a policy also concerning data breach management and the implementation of proper security measures.

The main risks are linked to the transmission of company data outside the company premises, in places not necessarily identified.

Last updated on 14/07/2022

05. What potential issues and risks arise for employers in the context of cross-border remote-working arrangements?

05. What potential issues and risks arise for employers in the context of cross-border remote-working arrangements?

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France

  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose

Cross-border remote working can accentuate some of the problems caused by teleworking or create new ones.

Among the existing problems, the loss of social ties is accentuated if the teleworker decides to work from another country. Indeed, the employee abroad will never physically see his colleagues, which will create a distance between the employee working from abroad and other employees.

Similarly, employers must ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers (article L. 4121-1 labour code). This is a difficult obligation to meet in teleworking, especially because employers do not have access to remote employees’ workplaces. It is even more difficult if the employee works from another country because the sanitary, electrical and other standards are different and potentially less protective than French rules.

As for social security law, in principle, the employee depends on the social security system of the country where they work. The employee can only continue to benefit from the French social security system if they are in a secondment situation. Moreover, this is only a temporary solution because the secondment implies a temporary mission. The employer will therefore have to register the employee with the social security system of the country where they are working, which will cause problems in terms of social contributions.

Another question that may arise is whether an employer should accept a work stoppage prescribed by a foreign doctor.

Finally, another problem that may arise is the employee's right to disconnect. Indeed, the employer and the employee must agree on a time slot during which the employee can not be contacted to respect his private life as much as possible.[4] It can be difficult to establish a time slot that suits both the employee and the employer in case of major time zone discrepancies.


[4] National agreement of November 26, 2020

Last updated on 21/09/2021

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Italy

  • at Toffoletto De Luca Tamajo

As a rule, it is not prohibited to work remotely abroad.

However, this could give rise to the following issues:

1) Applicable law: although the employment contract is governed by Italian law (or the law chosen by the parties), the mandatory rules of the place in which the work is carried out could apply, including those on working hours, safety at work, etc.
2) Social security contributions: the general rule is that contributions are paid in the country where the work is carried out. At times, bilateral agreements between countries or within the European Union make exceptions to this general rule if specific requirements are met, providing that in the case of short periods of work abroad, the contributions continue to be paid in the country of origin and not in the country where the work is carried out.
3) Accident at work insurance: Insurance problems could arise in connection with this specific method of working and the employer should verify concretely what kind of coverage exists.
4) Taxation: depending on the period spent working abroad, there is a possible risk of being subject to multiple taxes from different jurisdictions.

Last updated on 14/07/2022

10. Are there some workplaces or specific industries or sectors in which the government has required that employers make access to the workplace conditional on individuals having received a Covid-19 vaccination?

10. Are there some workplaces or specific industries or sectors in which the government has required that employers make access to the workplace conditional on individuals having received a Covid-19 vaccination?

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France

  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose
  • at Proskauer Rose

Please see above (questions 8 and 9) regarding the workplaces and specific industries concerned by making the access to the workplace conditional on individuals having received a Covid-19 vaccination.

Last updated on 21/09/2021

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Italy

  • at Toffoletto De Luca Tamajo

Yes. Under the provisions of article 4 of Legislative Decree No. 44/2021, vaccination is compulsory only for healthcare, social health, and medical workers (until 31 December 2022) Failure to fulfil the above-mentioned vaccination obligation leads to the suspension of the employee from their work and wages, although they remain entitled to keep their job.

Last updated on 14/07/2022